Vision - Nystagmus


Fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes


Patching and surgery for other eye conditions have anecdotally resulted in reduced eye movement.




Vision - Strabismus

The two eyes do not line up in the same direction, and therefore do not look at the same object at the same time.

Patching and corrective surgery, glasses.



Vision - Cortical Visual Impairment

A neurological visual impairment in which the patient exhibits variable vision

Vision therapy; simplified images in bright colors against a plain, high contrast background.

Ophthalmologist and Vision Specialist or TVI


Muscles - Hypotonia

Decreased muscle tone and strength resulting in floppiness.

Physical therapy, occupational and speech therapy can help increase strength. Other therapies to note are hippotherapy, aqua therapy and swimming. Use of orthotics such as compression suits and ankle/foot orthosis may assist weaker muscles. Early intervention is recommended.

Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist, Speech Pathologist 


Bilateral Parietal Foramen 

Big soft spots in the skull that may never fully close

Generally no treatment is required.




Extra bone growths

Full body X-Ray's (the first is usually scheduled at 3 years old) are recommended to monitor the skeleton. Often the growths are non-invasive to the body but they can be removed in surgery if they cause any pain and discomfort or if they impair typical bone structure growth.



Distinctive Facial Features

Can include a wide, short skull, prominent forehead, narrow bridge of the nose, shortened distance between the nose and upper lip, a downturned mouth and large, low set ears.

Generally no treatment is required.


Brachycephaly (flat head syndrome)

A distortion or misshaping of the back of the skull

An orthotic helmet.

Pediatric Craniofacial Surgeon 


Umbilical Hernia

When a portion of the intestines or abdominal organ(s) protrudes from the belly button

Generally heals by itself by age 1-2. If it is still present at 3-4 years it can be fixed with surgery.


Epilepsy / Seizures

A neurological disorder that causes disrupted nerve cell activity resulting in seizures 

Testing can include an EEG and treatment will involve medications.



Genitourinary tract defects

Birth defects that can effect internal and external sex organs such as the penis or ovaries, as well as urinary organs such as kidney and bladder.

Treatments depend on the defect but can include hormone therapy and surgery.




An unusually smaller than typical penis

Testosterone treatments if desired.



Undescended Testes

When both or one of the testicles do not descend into the scrotum but remain in the abdomen

Surgery if desired.



Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

A complete or partial absence of the Corpus Callosum, the band of white matter connecting the two hemispheres in the brain.

Testing can include a CT scan or MRI, no treatment recorded.



Sensorineural hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear. It can range from mild to severe resulting in total hearing loss.

Generally there is no treatment available.

Otolaryngologist or ENT specialist


Intellectual / Developmental


Intellectual disability

Below average I.Q, impacting general mental ability.

Early intervention therapies such as physical, occupational and speech therapies and life long support.


Developmental delay

A significant delay in a child meeting his or her milestones as compared to other children in the same age group.

Early intervention therapies such as physical, occupational and speech therapies.

Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist, Speech Pathologist 




Autism spectrum disorder or autistic behavioural traits

A developmental disorder that is characterized by difficulty in communicating and interacting.

Early intervention therapies and an individualised treatment plan as needed. Including but not limited to occupational, speech and behavioural therapies

Occupational Therapist, Speech Pathologist, ABA therapist